Fondation du doute Ben&Fluxus à Blois

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A Few Dates

// 1952

John Cage composes 4’33’’ of silence.

// 1955-1956

Performance in Osaka by the Gutai group.

// 1956

Yves Klein creates his first monochrome paintings.

// 1958

  • John Cage gives his first courses in New York at the New School of Social Research; his students include George Brecht, Dick Higgins, Al Hansen and Allan Kaprow.
  • The Dada exhibition in Düsseldorf influences many artists, particularly Nam June Paik.
  • Ben meets Klein and Arman in Nice.

// 1959

  • After he first shows interest in indeterminacy, first performance in New York by George Brecht : Towards Events.
  • Vostell creates Electronic Vision et TV Decoll / Ages.
  • La Monte Young discovers John Cage's indeterminate music.
  • Invention of the happening by Allan Kaprow, first event in October at the Reuben Gallery in New York. 

// 1959-1961

Pietro Manzoni creates his first “Pièces Limites” (border-line objects) : The turd, the line, the stand... 

// 1960

  • In New York, La Monte Young studies electro-acoustic music in Richard Maxfield's class.
  • In New York, Georg Maciunas attends the classes of Richard Maxfield at the New School of Social Research and makes the acquaintance of La Monte Young.
  • The first trap paintings by Daniel Spoerri.
  • Mary Baumeister, Stockhausen's wife, presents works and performances by Paik, Brecht, La Monte Young... in her apartment

// 1960-1961

  • The New Realism group is constituted on the initiative of Pierre Restany, with Arman, Klein, Raysse, Spoerri...
  • In New York, La Monte Young organizes a series of concert-performances in the studio of Yoko Ono, 112 Chambers Street.

// 1961

  • In his New York gallery AG, George Maciunas announces the la creation of FLUXUS and organizes performances (works by Richard Maxfield, John Cage, Dick Higgins, Jackson Mac Low).
  • With La Monte Young, Maciunas paginates the book An Anthology, the first Fluxus publication bringing together many of the above-mentioned artists.   

// 1962

  • In November 1961, Maciunas leaves New York and heads for Europe, pursuing his activities in Wiesbaden, Germany; he programs a large-scale Fluxus tour that will continue until 1964, passing through Berlin, Moscow, Tokyo. 
  • In June, in Wiesbaden, Germany, Nam June Paik organizes the neo-Dada concert In Der Musik.
  • The Festival of Misfits organized by Daniel Spoerri in London brings together Cage, Metger, Spoerri, Koepke, Emmett Williams, Ben Vautier (who exhibits his work for 15 days in Gallery One), George Filliou...
  • In Nice, Ben publishes the review Ben Dieu et Moi, Ben, je signe tout (Ben God and I, Ben, I sign anything).
  • In Paris, Vostell produces City-Rama, an itinerant exhibition. 

// 1962-1963

“Fluxus International Festspiele Neuester Musik”  (Fluxus International Festival of the newest music) is held first in Wiesbaden in September 1962, and then in Amsterdam, Copenhagen, Paris and Nice.

// 1963

  • In Nice, in July, George Maciunas gives a concert in the Fluxus Festival of Total Art and initiates street theater.  
  • Joseph Beuys, working in Düsseldorf, joins Fluxus in February.
  • Brecht et Robert Watts create the Yam Festival in New-York.
  • Maciunas leaves Europe and returns to the United States, where he will bring into being numerous objects and Fluxus publications.

// 1963-1964

In Nice, Ben founds the group Art Total / Fluxus, with which he will give a dozen concerts inside and outside that town, as well as numerous street theater productions in accordance with the schema given by George Maciunas.

// 1964

  • Ben meets George Brecht in New York; he participates in concerts in the FluxHall, 359 Canal Street (Fluxus shop and performance site opened in 1963 on Maciunas' return.  
  • Henry Flynt creates in New York the group A.A.I.C. (Action Against Imperialistic Culture).
  • Jean-Jacques Lebel organizes in Paris the Festival de la Libre Expression (free expression festival), during which Ben gives a Fluxus concert with the participation of Serge III Oldenbourg.

// 1965

  • The Zaj group gives its first concerts in Madrid.
  • George Brecht leaves the United States for Europe, and settles in Italy.  

// 1965-1966

Robert Filliou and George Brecht settle in Villefranche-sur-Mer, near Nice, and create the gallery La Cédille qui sourit (The Smiling Cedilla). 

// 1967-1969

  • Maciunas develops building cooperatives, restoring historic warehouses in such a way as to render speculation impossible.  
  • Jonas Mékas will install his film library on the ground floor of one of these buildings, one of the first public spaces of Soho other than FluxHall, 359 Canal Street, which was too small.
  • In June, in Wiesbaden, Nam June Paik organizes the neo-Dada concert In Der Musik.
  • The Festival of Misfits organized by Daniel Spoerri in London brings together Cage, Metger, Spoerri, Koepke, Emmett Williams, Ben Vautier (who exhibits his work for 15 days in Gallery One), George Filliou...
  • In Nice, Ben publishes the review Ben Dieu et Moi, Ben, je signe tout (Ben God and I; Ben, I sign anything).
  • In Paris, Vostell produces City-Rama, an itinerant exhibit. 

// 1962-1963

« Fluxus International Festspiele Neuester Musik » (Fluxus International Festival of the newest music) is held first in Wiesbaden in September 1962, and then in Amsterdam, Copenhagen, Paris and Nice. 

// 1963

  • In Nice, in July, George Maciunas gives a concert in the Fluxus Festival of Total Art and initiates street theater. 
  • Joseph Beuys, working in Düsseldorf, joins Fluxus en February.
  • Brecht et Robert Watts create the lYam Festival in New York.
  • Maciunas leaves Europe and returns to the United States, where he will bring into being  numerous objects and Fluxus publications.  

// 1963/1964

In Nice, Ben founds the group Art Total / Fluxus, with which he will give a dozen concerts inside and outside that town, as well as numerous street theater productions in accordance with the schema given by George Maciunas.

// 1964

  • Ben meets George Brecht in New York; he participates in concerts in the FluxHall, 359 Canal Street (Fluxus shop and performance site opened in 1963 on Maciunas' return). 
  • Henry Flynt creates in New York the group A.A.I.C. (Action Against Imperialistic Culture).
  • Jean-Jacques Lebel organizes in Paris the first Festival de la Libre Expression (free expression festival), during which Ben gives a Fluxus concert with the participation of Serge III Oldenbourg.

// 1965

The Zaj group gives its first concerts in Madrid.
George Brecht leaves the United States for Europe, and settles in Italy.

// 1965-1966

Robert Filliou and George Brecht setlle in Villefranche-sur-Mer, near Nice, and create the gallery La Cédille qui sourit (The Smiling Cedilla).

// 1967-1969

  • Maciunas develops building cooperatives, restoring historic warehouses in such a way as to render speculation impossible.
  • Jonas Mékas will install his film library on the ground floor of one of these buildings, one of the first public spaces of Soho other than FluxHall, 359 Canal Street, which was too small.

Fondation du doute - Ben & Fluxus collection
- Public Entrance : 14 rue de la Paix /41000 Blois
- Administration Offices : 6 rue Franciade
02 54 55 37 40